Since the invasion of Russia into Ukraine, the conflict continues to cause significant adverse effects on human welfare and social-economic conditions in Ukraine. The war has affected millions of Ukrainians with consequences like deaths, displacements, and missing persons. A more significant chunk of the affected population consists of women and children. Here is a recap of the situation of women in Ukraine.
According to UN Women, gender discrimination is prevalent in Ukraine. Traditions, patriarchal opinions fueled by the media, and school curricula play a crucial role in defining gender norms. The ongoing conflict in Eastern Ukraine further strengthens gender stereotypes that underscore men as protectors cum heroes. On the other hand, women are deemed caring supporters with limited engagement and conflict resolution participation. Compounding the problem is the underfunding by government and development partners in gender equality and programs that focus on the role of women in governance, economy, peace, and security.
Economic and Employment Opportunities
Persistent gender disparity in economic opportunities and discrimination limit Ukrainian women from accessing employment. This situation has increased the gender gap, particularly in employment and promotion, and contributed to occupational gender segregation in the job market porno français. Women are often limited to what can be described as traditionally female occupational areas. These fields include education, social security, healthcare, public administration, and administrative and support services, where women are also subject to lower remuneration. Vertical segregation pushes women to occupy lower positions while men take over the top management positions across all sectors of the economy.
Gender-based violence is persistent in Ukraine, of which 90% of cases entail violence against women. Political volatility, conflict, and displacement have had a substantial adverse effect on gender equality and the state of women in the country. Gender violence is quite common during wartimes, with reports of violence against females – rape and other kinds of sexual abuse – have increased significantly.
Consequences of Internal Displacements
Since the onset of the conflict in Ukraine, over 1.5 million Ukrainians have been internally displaced, with two-thirds of this population being women and children. The displaced persons suffer from limited healthcare, employment, and housing access. This has had adverse effects on social unity, communal security, and resilience of vulnerable groups like internally displaced persons, with a particularly damaging impact on women. Internal displacements lead girls and women to insecure living conditions, making them prone to human trafficking.
Over the past years, Ukraine has made significant strides in minimizing the risk to women during childbirth. However, the conflict in the country is eroding these gains. Estimates show that 4% of displaced persons will be pregnant women. 15% of these women will need emergency obstetric intervention. One another aspect, women who were in their last phases of pregnancy before the war commenced, are now delivering while displaced. Some give birth in bomb shelters with no trained birth attendance and basic supplies for safe deliveries.
Leadership and Decision Making
The participation of women in decision-making concerning recovery and peacebuilding is meager. Women account for a mere 12% of parliamentary seats and 11% of positions in the cabinet. Civil society organizations and the state have limited capability to offer support to families split by the conflict, women, and children separated from their loved ones. In many scenarios, elderly relatives and children are often forced to flee their communities or homes. Today, little effort has been directed towards supporting women facing compound discrimination, mainly older women, women with disabilities, women from ethnic minorities, and women displaced by armed conflict.